科学政策

文化燃烧:古老的实践如何重塑野火政策

06.05.23 | 8 min read | 文字乔纳森·威尔逊&liam torpy

荒地缓解和管理委员会呼吁来自不同利益相关者和FAS的意见,并与合作伙伴一起Conservation X Labs(CXL),罗盘California Council on Science and Technology(CCST), answered the call.

招募来自学术界,私营部门,国家实验室和其他非营利组织的参与者,Wildland Fire政策加速器产生了24个想法为了改善野生火灾的生活方式。

“文化燃烧”是一个短语,在Wildland Fire政策的讨论中越来越多地出现,但它仍然没有被广泛理解,甚至始终如一地定义。

Liam Torpy of Conservation X Labs sat down with FAS to discuss why ‘cultural burning’ is garnering more attention in the world of wildfire mitigation and management.

FAS:Liam – thanks for joining us. To start, just give us a quick introduction to Conservation X Labs and its mission.

LT:保护X实验室的创始人[Paul Bunje和Alex Dehgan]希望建立一个保护技术组织,您知道,它不仅是采用相同的传统保护区域保护区和指挥和控制方法。CXL希望找到有关这些问题可以利用市场力量或开发新技术的创新解决方案,因为这些问题在保护领域的成倍增加,但解决方案尚未保持步伐。在许多关键的生态系统中,我们并没有像在美国西部的野火或亚马逊一样做得不够。由于气候变化等全球力量使问题恶化,问题越来越严重。

FAS:当您决定与FAS合作,召集旨在在Wildfire Management领域浮出水面的圆桌讨论,CXL一直在召集您所说的“小想法”事件 - 当您决定与FAS合作,就此Wildland Fire Policy Accelerator。文化燃烧成为此过程中提出的建议的重点领域之一。有些人可能熟悉“开处方燃烧”的想法 - 使用火来降低路上不受控制的巨速度的风险 - 但“文化燃烧”是完全不同的。您能解释什么不同以及为什么重要的事情吗?

LT: You can read a lot of reports, or see some statutes on the books, legally, that will oftentimes not reference cultural burning at all. Some do – but it’s kind of a footnote that’s put under ‘prescribed burning’ – many publications treat it the same way. But prescribed burning, which can have real ecological benefits, is often only measured by the government using acreage: how much land can we burn?

随着文化的燃烧,没有一个定义,因为每个部落都有自己的版本。但这通常是要培养自然资源或鼓励特别重要的植物的新增长。因此,它的目标比规定的燃烧更为目标 - 它适合部落所拥有的土地和资源。它深深地植根于基于基于的知识。

这也是代际知识转移的一种非常重要的方法。[文化消防从业者]有时说“当您一起燃烧并一起学习时”。这是一种教会您小组的其他资源,如何管理它们的方式,以及每个人如何聚在一起管理土地并照顾土地。

FAS:那么,为什么传统的联邦和州消防方法与文化燃烧之间会有张力?

A lot of people I think don’t really recognize this: you think that because a lot of Tribes have reservations, or Tribal trust land or some of their own free land, they can just go and burn as they wish. But the people on the ground that we’ve talked to, including some participants in this accelerator, say Tribal trust land is some of the hardest land to burn on. It’s pretty much considered federal land, administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). That means pretty much every time you want to burn on the land, you have to have a burn plan and submit that to the BIA, which is generally very understaffed. Only one person may be looking over those documents. Then a BIA ‘burn boss’ is considered the only person qualified to actually lead the burn – and that is already kind of infringing on the sovereignty of the tribe itself: having their own burn led by this outsider within the federal government. And oftentimes you have to go through a NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) permitting process which is a very long and expensive process that requires public comments. There are local air districts that regulate smoke. Then you have to have an approved burn window where they say, okay, the conditions are good. And that often happens very rarely. And so a lot of tribes don’t even attempt to go through this whole process. It’s simply too much administrative burden on them.

FAS:这不仅是行政负担,对吗?似乎有些犹豫要允许管理这片土地和附近社区的机构更多的文化燃烧。这是为什么?

LT:公众经常prescrib的怀疑ed and cultural burning. They’re scared of fire because of all the megafires. So it’s can be hard to get the public support sometimes. And because of that a lot of these federal agencies that by their nature are very risk averse. They’re unwilling to move forward with some of these plans that can be perceived as risky when it’s easier just to do nothing. Their approach is just when a fire comes through, try to fight it. Say you did the best you could even though it burns down half the forest and becomes a high severity fire.

FAS:Tell us about the Accelerator participants you worked with.

LT:我们与Nina Fontana,Chris Adlam,Ray Guttierez,然后[Fas’] Jessica Blackband与Kyle Trefny和Ryan Reed进行了交谈。瑞安(Ryan)和雷(Ray)都是部落的成员,也是其他非土著人,但在那个领域工作并试图支持文化大火。这些已经是忙碌的人,试图重新建立其中的一些传统,并与这些机构障碍作斗争。他们的首要任务可能不是要飞往华盛顿与联邦决策者进行交谈或坐在他们的计算机上并制定和研究这些建议。但是,他们有一个非常深刻的现场观点,即华盛顿的许多人没有,而且委员会没有很多人没有。

FAS:您能给我们一个例子,说明该过程中出现了哪些建议?

LT:重要的是要理解的一件事是,这些建议并非全部,结束所有问题。这些步骤是 - 通常是我们开始为文化火灾而开始的最基本步骤,即通过消防管理的尊重和应有的位置。大火在土地上被禁止使用了一个多世纪 - 一个多世纪以来,美国西部的极端火势抑制策略。许多以前已经燃烧了几个世纪的部落,有时甚至几千年,都不允许继续那个周期。这是非法的 - 被定为犯罪。因此,知识就消失了。因此,有些部落正在寻求重新获得知识。

克里斯·阿德兰(Chris Adlam)推荐的部落游骑兵计划(以加拿大和澳大利亚为基础)为部落成员创造了永久的长期机会行使其传统的机会,以对土地上纵火,以建立代际知识。这些不仅仅是短期,一个夏季的实习机会,而是真正的就业机会,使他们能够在土地上开火。

来自雷蒙德·古蒂雷斯(Raymond Guttierez)的另一个重要建议是建立联邦对“文化火”和“文化消防人”的定义。目前,对于这种做法本身,甚至没有真正认可的定义,而仅用于规定的燃烧。这不仅是一个定义,而且在区域上是特定的。部落将有助于在每个地区发展。

FAS:亲自对您来说,该过程的哪一部分最有意义?

LT: I think one of the things that was rewarding is that these participants, in the beginning, were a little skeptical that what they had to say would actually be important, or would be more useful than the information that decision makers in Washington already had at their disposal. But they really did have a lot to say and a lot to contribute to this national conversation. And so I think it was really cool to see just how, by the end, they got validation that they have really useful information and experience that needs to be heard by people in power.

FAS:拜登政府提出了将土著知识纳入联邦决策。但是,行政部门的指导是一回事 - 对地面的真正影响是另一回事。您是否认为像文化燃烧这样的土著习俗实际上在受到野火影响的社区获得支持?

LT: I think there’s also a broader movement within our society focused on diversity and equity and inclusion. Looking at the historical injustices that Tribes have faced, and trying to give them compensation when they do participate in these processes, and give their input and share their traditional knowledge – we need to make sure we are adequately valuing that. And so I think that’s also another element that’s giving this a boost. Hopefully, we see more and more people in power incorporating these ideas. And really, it’s not just about them incorporating the ideas – it’s about allowing Tribes to lead this movement, and to lead these burns. Some of it is just getting out of their way. Some of it is giving them more of a platform. But what we don’t want is just for the system in place to kind of co-opt the Tribal practices and leave the cultural fire practitioners in the dust.

但是我也认为,让白宫发表有关土著知识的说法确实很重要。通过从顶部获得鼓励,[机构]应该研究文化燃烧,或者将基于位置的知识和传统的生态管理视为,这使他们更多地推动了这些伙伴关系。而且我认为存在越来越多的关注这些问题。乐动冠军当我们看着野外火灾危机时,它已经失控了。我们在上面花费的钱数量 - 有必要询问有关我们上个世纪左右所做的事情的问题。在那个世纪的压制之前,部落在当地遭受了更多的抨击。人们越来越多地研究它,试图学习并给予它真正应有的尊重,以及应有的关注。